Presbyterians trace their history to the 16th century and the Protestant Reformation. Our heritage, and much of what we believe, began with the French lawyer
John Calvin (1509-1564), whose writings crystallized much of the Reformed thinking that came before him.
Calvin did much of his writing from Geneva, Switzerland. From there, the Reformed movement spread to other parts of Europe and the British Isles. Many of the early Presbyterians in America came from England, Scotland and Ireland. The first American Presbytery was organized at Philadelphia in 1706. The first General Assembly was held in the same city in 1789. The first Assembly was convened by the Rev. John Witherspoon, the only minister to sign the Declaration of Independence.
The earliest Christian church consisted of Jews in the first century who had known Jesus and heard his teachings. It gradually grew and spread from the Middle East
to other parts of the world, though not without controversy and hardship among its supporters.
During the fourth century, after more than 300 years of persecution under various Roman emperors, the church became established as a political as well as a spiritual power under the Emperor Constantine. Theological and political disagreements, however, served to widen the rift between members of the eastern (Greek-speaking) and western (Latin-speaking) branches of the church. Eventually the western portions of Europe came under the religious and political authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Eastern Europe and parts of Asia came under the authority of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
In western Europe, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church remained largely unquestioned until the Renaissance in the 15th century. The invention of the printing press in Germany around 1440 made it possible for common people to have access to printed materials including the Bible. This, in turn, enabled many to discover religious thinkers who had begun to question the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. One such figure, Martin Luther, a German priest and professor, started the movement known as the Protestant Reformation when he posted a list of 95 grievances against the Roman Catholic Church on a church door in Wittenberg, Germany, in 1517. Some 20 years later, a French/Swiss theologian, John Calvin, further refined the reformers new way of thinking about the nature of God and Gods relationship with humanity in what came to be known as Reformed theology. John Knox, a Scotsman who studied with Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland, took Calvins teachings back to Scotland. Other Reformed communities developed in England, Holland and France. The Presbyterian church traces its ancestry back primarily to Scotland and England.
Presbyterians have featured prominently in United States history. The Rev. Francis Makemie, who arrived in the United States from Ireland in 1683, helped to organize the first American Presbytery at Philadelphia in 1706. In 1726, the Rev. William Tennent founded a ministerial log college in Pennsylvania. Twenty years later, the College of New Jersey (now known as Princeton University) was established. Other Presbyterian ministers, such as the Rev. Jonathan Edwards and the Rev. Gilbert Tennent, were driving forces in the so-called Great Awakening, a revivalist movement in the early 18th century. One of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, the Rev. John Witherspoon, was a Presbyterian minister and the president of Princeton University from 1768-1793.
Presbyterians are distinctive in two major ways. They adhere to a pattern of religious thought known as Reformed theology and a form of government that stresses
the active, representational leadership of both ministers and church members.
Theology is a way of thinking about God and Gods relation to the world. Reformed theology evolved during the 16th century religious movement known as the Protestant
Reformation. It emphasizes God's supremacy over everything and humanitys chief purpose as being to glorify and enjoy God forever.
In its confessions, the Presbyterian Church expresses the faith of the Reformed tradition. Central to this tradition is the affirmation of the majesty, holiness and providence of God who creates, sustains, rules and redeems the world in the freedom of sovereign righteousness and love. Related to this central affirmation of Gods sovereignty are other great themes of the Reformed tradition:
A major contributor to Reformed theology was John Calvin, who converted from Roman Catholicism after training for the priesthood and in the law. In exile in Geneva,
Switzerland, Calvin developed the presbyterian pattern of church government, which vests governing authority primarily in elected laypersons known as elders. The word
presbyterian comes from the Greek word for elder.
Elders are chosen by the people. Together with ministers of the Word and Sacrament, they exercise leadership, government, and discipline and have responsibilities for the life of a particular church as well as the church at large, including ecumenical relationships. They shall serve faithfully as members of the session. (Book of Order, G-10.0102) When elected commissioners to higher governing bodies, elders participate and vote with the same authority as ministers of the Word and Sacrament, and they are eligible for any office. (Book of Order, G-6.0302)
The body of elders elected to govern a particular congregation is called a session. They are elected by the congregation and in one sense are representatives of the other members of the congregation. On the other hand, their primary charge is to seek to discover and represent the will of Christ as they govern. Presbyterian elders are both elected and ordained. Through ordination they are officially set apart for service. They retain their ordination beyond their term in office. Ministers who serve the congregation are also part of the session. The session is the smallest, most local governing body. The other governing bodies are presbyteries, which are composed of several churches, synods, which are composed of several presbyteries, and the General Assembly, which represents the entire denomination. Elders and ministers who serve on these governing bodies are also called presbyters.
Some of the principles articulated by John Calvin remain at the core of Presbyterian beliefs. Among these are the sovereignty of God, the authority of the scripture, justification by grace through faith and the priesthood of all believers. What they mean is that God is the supreme authority throughout the universe. Our knowledge of God and God's purpose for humanity comes from the Bible, particularly what is revealed in the New Testament through the life of Jesus Christ. Our salvation (justification) through Jesus is God's generous gift to us and not the result of our own accomplishments. It is everyone's job ministers and lay people alike to share this Good News with the whole world. That is also why the Presbyterian church is governed at all levels by a combination of clergy and laity, men and women alike.
Presbyterians confess their beliefs through statements that have been adopted over the years and are contained in The Book of Confessions. These statements reflect our understanding of God and what God expects of us at different times in history, but all are faithful to the fundamental beliefs described above. Even though we share these common beliefs, Presbyterians understand that God alone is lord of the conscience, and it is up to each individual to understand what these principles mean in his or her life.
Predestination is a teaching to which some Christians have adhered, including the Reformed theologian John Calvin. While the doctrine of predestination has sometimes
been hotly disputed, it belongs within the larger context of John Calvins teachings about Gods grace.
Calvin argued from Scripture that God has predestined or elected some people to be saved in Jesus Christ and others not to be. He insisted, nonetheless, that we could be sure only of our own salvation; we were never in a position to judge whether or not another person was saved. As the Second Helvetic Confession says,
We must hope well of all, and not rashly judge any man to be a reprobate. (5.055)
For Calvin, the point of the doctrine of predestination was to remind us that God is free and gracious. There is nothing that we can do to earn Gods favor. Rather, our salvation comes from God alone. We are able to choose God because God first chose us.
Properly understood, the doctrine of predestination frees us from speculating about who is saved and who is not. God has already taken care of these matters in the mystery of Gods own being. We are called to hear Gods good news in Jesus Christ and to trust in God through Jesus Christ.
For the preaching of the Gospel is to be heard, and it is to be believed; and it is to be held as beyond doubt that if you believe and are in Christ, you are elected. (Second Helvetic Confession, 5.059)
The doctrine of predestination is to be held in harmony with the doctrine of [Gods] love to all mankind ... [and] with the doctrine that God desires not the death of any sinner, but has provided in Christ a salvation sufficient for all. (amendment to the Westminster Confession of Faith, 6.192)
Denominations often differ over what they recognize as sacraments. Some recognize as many as seven sacraments, others have no sacraments
in the life of the church. The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) has two sacraments, Baptism and the Lords Supper.
The Reformed tradition understands Baptism and the Lords Supper to be Sacraments, instituted by God and commended by Christ. Sacraments are signs of the real presence and power of Christ in the Church, symbols of Gods action. Through the Sacraments, God seals believers in redemption, renews their identity as the people of God, and marks them for service (Book of Order, W-1.3033.2).
The early Church, following Jesus, took three primary material elements of life water, bread, and wine to become basic symbols of offering life to God as Jesus had offered his life. Being washed with the water of Baptism, Christians received new life in Christ and presented their bodies to be living sacrifices to God. Eating bread and drinking wine they received the sustaining presence of Christ, remembered Gods covenant promise, and pledged their obedience anew (Book of Order, W-1.3033.1).
In Baptism, the Holy Spirit binds the Church in covenant to its Creator and Lord. The water of Baptism symbolizes the waters of creation, of the flood,
and of the Exodus from Egypt. Thus, the water of Baptism links us to the goodness of Gods creation and to the grace of Gods covenants with Noah and Israel.
Prophets of Israel, amidst the failure of their own generation to honor Gods covenant, called for justice to roll down like waters and righteousness like an
everflowing stream. (Amos 5:24) They envisioned a fresh expression of Gods grace and of creations goodness a new covenant accompanied by the sprinkling of
cleansing water. In his ministry, Jesus offered the gift of living water. So, Baptism is the sign and seal of Gods grace and covenant in Christ (Book of Order, W-2.3003).
Baptism enacts and seals what the Word proclaims: Gods redeeming grace offered to all people. Baptism is Gods gift of grace and also Gods summons to respond to that grace. Baptism calls to repentance, to faithfulness, and to discipleship. Baptism gives the church its identity and commissions the church for ministry to the world (Book of Order, W-2.3006).
The water used for Baptism should be common to the location, and shall be applied to the person by pouring, sprinkling, or immersion. By whatever mode, the water should be applied visibly and generously (Book of Order, W-3.3605).
Baptism is received only once. There are many times in worship, however, when believers acknowledge the grace of God continually at work. As they participate in the celebration of anothers Baptism, as they experience the sustaining nurture of the Lords Supper, and as they reaffirm the commitments made at Baptism, they confess their ongoing need of Gods grace and pledge anew their obedience to Gods covenant in Christ (Book of Order, W-2.3009).
As there is one body, there is one Baptism (Ephesians 4:4-6). The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) recognizes all Baptisms with water in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit administered by other Christian churches (Book of Order, W-2.3010).
The Lords Supper is the sign and seal of eating and drinking in communion with the crucified and risen Lord. During his earthly ministry Jesus shared meals
with his followers as a sign of community and acceptance and as an occasion for his own ministry (Book of Order, W-2.4001a).
Around the Table of the Lord, Gods people are in communion with Christ and with all who belong to Christ. Reconciliation with Christ compels reconciliation with one another. All the baptized faithful are to be welcomed to the Table, and none shall be excluded because of race, sex, age, economic status, social class, handicapping condition, difference of culture or language, or any barrier created by human injustice. Coming to the Lords Table the faithful are actively to seek reconciliation in every instance of conflict or division between them and their neighbors (Book of Order, W-2.4006).
The Lords Supper is to be observed on the Lords Day, in the regular place of worship, and in a manner suitable to the particular occasion and local congregation. It is appropriate to celebrate the Lords Supper as often as each Lords Day. It is to be celebrated regularly and frequently enough to be recognized as integral to the Service for the Lords Day (Book of Order, W-2.4009).
The invitation to the Lords Supper is extended to all who have been baptized, remembering that access to the Table is not a right conferred upon the worthy, but a privilege given to the undeserving who come in faith, repentance, and love. In preparing to receive Christ in this Sacrament, the believer is to confess sin and brokenness, to seek reconciliation with God and neighbor, and to trust in Jesus Christ for cleansing and renewal. Even one who doubts or whose trust is wavering may come to the Table in order to be assured of Gods love and grace in Christ Jesus (Book of Order, W-2.4011a).
The Bible declares that God claimed humanity as Gods own before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4)
Both believers and their children are included in Gods covenant love. Children of believers are to be baptized without undue delay, but without undue haste. Baptism, whether administered to those who profess their faith or to those presented for Baptism as children, is one and the same Sacrament. The Baptism of children witnesses to the truth that Gods love claims people before they are able to respond in faith (Book of Order, W-2.3008).
Baptism, therefore, usually occurs during infancy, though a person may be baptized at any age. Parents bring their baby to church, where they publicly declare their desire that he or she be baptized. When an infant or child is baptized the church commits itself to nurture the child in faith. When adults are baptized they make a public profession of faith.
Baptism distinguishes children of those who believe in Gods redemptive power from children of nonbelievers. The water that is used symbolizes three accounts from the Bibles Old Testament: the waters of creation, the flood described in the story of Noah, and the Hebrews escape from slavery in Egypt by crossing the Red Sea. All three stories link humanity to Gods goodness through water.
Baptism signifies The faithfulness of God. The washing away of sin. Rebirth. Putting on the fresh garment of Christ. Being sealed by Gods Spirit. Adoption into the covenant family of the Church. resurrection and illumination in Christ. (Book of Order, W-2.3004)
Unlike some denominations, Presbyterians do not require a person to be entirely immersed in water during baptism. Baptism is received only once. Its effect is not tied to the moment when it is administered, for it signifies the beginning of life in Christ, not its completion. The Presbyterian Church believes that persons of other denominations are part of one body of Christian believers; therefore, it recognizes and accepts baptisms by other Christian churches.
Baptism is almost always administered as part of a worship service. In the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), baptism must be authorized by the session of a particular congregation and performed by a minister.
One of the places where the church has had the opportunity to live up to its proclamations for the equality of all persons is in the status that it gives women
in its own life and work.
Although women were first ordained as elders in one of the predecessor denominations to the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) in 1930, it was not until 1956 that presbyteries were permitted to ordain women to the ministry.
In a different predecessor denomination, the 1956 General Assembly approved changes in the churchs constitution to allow the election of women as deacons and ruling elders. Those changes were defeated by the presbyteries, but the 1957 General Assembly responded to the defeat by urging that women be included in all church committees including those on finances and budget. The first ordination of women as elders in this denomination actually occurred in 1962. As ministers, women were ordained beginning 1965.